Multilingualism Research in Spanish: Annotated Bibliography
Compiled by Laura Sánchez
(University of Barcelona)
The present annotated bibliography seeks to sketch a general picture of the nature and scope of the research on multilingualism supplied in Spanish. A number of authors writing in this language have taken interest in a wide variety of aspects of multilingualism. The areas that seem to be more outstanding so far are Education, Linguistic Policies, (Foreign) Language Acquisition and Sociolinguistics.
Most research has been furnished with works reporting on a range of situations of multilingualism in Spanish speaking countries, above all Spain and Latin-America. A smaller body of research has dealt with situations of multilingualism in other European countries, or with some theoretical foundations.
With the purpose of providing a complete overview, the papers, articles and books listed in this annotated bibliography are divided into sections depending on the focus of investigation, in spite of the absence of a clear-cut boundary between these. Sections I to IV discuss different aspects of multilingualism in the context of Spanish-speaking countries. Section V is concerned with multilingual situations in non-Spanish-speaking countries, and Section VI makes some general remarks on psycholinguistics. The two final sections are slightly different from the others. They focus on current research on the acquisition of a third language by bilingual learners in Spain. Specifically, Sections VII and VIII discuss the acquisition of English by learners bilingual in Spanish and Catalan, and Spanish and Basque, respectively.
- I. Educational Aspects of Multilingualism
- II. Political Aspects of Language
- III. Socio-Cultural Considerations
- IV. Linguistic Diversity in Multilingual Contexts
- V. Multilingualism in non-Spanish-speaking countries
- VI. Psycholinguistic Aspects of Multilingualism
- VII. L3 Acquisition in Bilinguals. Research in Catalonia
- VIII. L3 Acquisition in Bilinguals. Research in the Basque Country
If you have additional titles to add to this list, please contact us!
I. EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF MULTILINGUALISM
A salient research area in the Spanish literature on multilingualism is education. The works discussed in this section focus on educational, pedagogical or didactic aspects in multilingual contexts in Spain and Latin-America. In those contexts, the Spanish language co-exists with other aboriginal languages or dialects, or with the languages of migrant population. The efforts to implement the teaching and learning of languages in these situations of cultural and linguistic change are the main topic in almost all of the works.
In order to facilitate the contextualization of the discussed situations, in this and the following sections a further distinction is made between works in Spain and works in Latin-America.
Some relevant titles in Spain:
BUSTOS, J.J. 2002. Inmigración, multilingüismo y educación intercultural [Immigration, multilingualism and intercultural education]. Almería: Universidad de Almería.
The issue of multilingualism is addressed from the perspective of migration and language miniorities.
CANTERO, F.J., C. ROMERA and M. MENDOZA (eds.) 1996. ‘Didáctica de la lengua y la literatura para una sociedad plurilingüe del Siglo XXI’ [Language and literature didactics for a multilingual society of the XXI Century]. Actas del IV Congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Española de Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura.
The proceedings edited by Cantero and his colleagues are of an interdisciplinary nature and collect several works of a variety of topics, as for instance: semantics and semiotics, anthropology and sociology of language, linguistic theory, phonetics and phonology, grammar and grammar didactics, pragmatics, text linguistics and cognitive linguistics, linguistic typology and coexistence of languages, discursive psycholinguistics, or (especially) foreign language teaching and learning.
ETXEBARRÍA, M. 2002. La diversidad de las lenguas en España [Language diversity in Spain]. Madrid: Espasa Forum.
The linguistic situation in Spain is explored in this book. Specifically, the situation in some autonomous communities where Spanish is spoken along with a community language is explored. On this basis, the author’s account of multilingualism highlights the identity of the individual as a definitory trait in the linguistic plurality depicted, while advocating for the application of a set of measures that allow multilingualism to get rid of its label as socially conflicing element.
FERNÁNDEZ, A. 2001. “Una selección bibliográfica sobre el método AICLE (Aprendizaje integrado de conocimientos curriculares y lengua extranjera)” [A bibliography selection on the AICLE method (Integrated learning of curricular knowledge and foreign language)]. Contextos Educativos, 4. 217-239.
A cornerstone of the promotion of multilingualism in Europe is the application of the so-called “AICLE” Method, that is, a second and foreign language teaching method designed from a content-based approach. This method intends to impulse language learning through the teaching of extra-linguistic contents in the target language. The present article presents AICLE within the framework of second language acquisition and stresses its close link with multilingualism, as such a method is the result of and is developed in multilingual contexts.
HUSÉN, R. and OPPER, S 1984. Educación multicultural y multilingüe [Multicultural and multilingual Education]. (Traducción de Guillermo Solana). Madrid: Narcea, DL.
The central topic of this book, as appropriately indicated in the title, is the issue of multiculturalism, and more specifically, intercultural assimilation. This topic is treated throughout a series of conferences and papers. The authors analyze the evolution of ethnic minorities, which are discussed from different approaches, above all, multicultural education from a psychological perspective, or the so-called “compensatory” education.
LOVELACE, M. 1995. Educación multicultural: lengua y cultura en la escuela plural [Multicultural Education: language and culture in a plural school]. Madrid: Escuela Española, DL.
Lovelace reports on a multicultural educational experiencie in the EUA. She studies the concept of multiculturality at a cultural and linguistic level. The study of this concept is carried out as a function of certain social and school factors, among which a number of variables related to both the teacher (attitudes, methodology, etc.) and the learner are to be found. Bilingualism or the relationship between the sociocultural context and the role played by the school in the development of multiculturality are in the foreground.
MARTÍN ROJO, L. et al. 2003. ¿Asimilar o integrar? Dilemas de las políticas lingüísticas ante el multilingüismo en las aulas [Assimilate or integrate? Dilemnas in linguistic politics on multilingualism in the classroom]. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación/CIDE, nº 154.
The scenery of Martin’s work is the learning context of the Spanish language on the part of migrant population in Spain (Arabic population, above all). The present work deals with a number of pedagogical measures adopted to solve the learning problems these learners are felt to face. The final goal of the aforementioned measures is the development of a linguistic politic based on integration promoting learning.
MORALES, M. 2002. Convivencia, tolerancia y multilingüismo: educación intercultural en secundaria [Living together, tolerance and multilingualism: intercultural education in secondary school]. Madrid: Narcea. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte.
Morales elaborates on a proposal of intercultural education for adolescents, built on a series of principles that aim at promoting multilingualism and multiculturality. For the former, he raises values based on respect, tolerance, as well as social and cultural integration. For the latter, a didactic proposal is made on the basis of several activities.
Some relevant titles in Latin-America:
ARMÉNDIZ, ANA M. 2000. “Política y planificación lingüística en Argentina con proyección al MERCOSUR educativo: multlingüismo y equidad” [Linguistic politic and planning in Argentina with projection to educational MERCOSUR: multilingualism and equity]. Linguagem & Ensino, 3 (1). 139-156.
In this piece of research the author exposes the multilingual situation lived in Argentina, and the political and linguistic efforts made in order to achieve an equilibrium in the use of the different languages spoken in that region. In particular, such efforts centre around the practical aspects of various proposals for the teaching of the first and the second language, the aboriginal and community languages, respectively. This teaching is aimed to foster the necessary changes in the educational system so that it can cope with multilingualism, i.e. with the difficulties derived from the unequal treatment of the various languages in contact. Some linguistic notions that apply directly to the situation described are provided, such as for instance monolingualism, bilingualism, multilingualism, code-mixing or code-switching, etc.
ETXEBARRIA, M. 2003. ‘Multilingüismo y realidad sociolingüística en el Caribe colombiano: derechos lingüísticos y medidas de política lingüística’ [Multilingualism and sociolinguistic reality in the Colombian Caribbean: linguistic rights and political measures]. Paper presented at the XXXIII Simposio de la Sociedad Española de Lingüística (SEL), Girona.
Maitena Etxebarria is an expert on sociolinguistics, and has extensively researched multilingualism from the perspective of linguistic politic. In the present paper she reflects on the social and multilingual reality in the Colombian Caribbean.
GODDENZZI, J.C. 1998. ‘Globalización, Multilingüismo y Educación’ [Globalization, Multilingualism and Education]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación 19.
Some reflections on globalization and multilingualism are rendered in this article, where Goddenzzi discusses several situations of social interaction. He pays some attention to the situation in Peru, described by means of the “diglossic pattern” observable in the model of bilingual intercultural education and linguistic politic adopted in this country.
LÓPEZ, L.E. 1998. ‘Multilingüismo y educación en América Latina’ [Multilingualism and education in Latin-America]. Paper presented in the Seminario Internacional sobre Políticas Compensatorias en Educación. Buenos Aires.
LÓPEZ, L.E. 1999. La Educación Intercultural Bilingüe: ¿Respuesta a la Multietnicidad, Pluriculturalidad y Multilingüismo? [Intercultural Bilingual Education: Answer to Multiethnicity, Multiculturality and Multilingualism?]. Bolivia: PROEIB Andes.
The two publications by this author result from the programme of formation in Intercultural Bilingual Education financed by the Centre Bartolomé de las Casas. They are fundamentally sociolinguistic, and present the educational situation of the aboriginal population in South America. Specifically, they deal with multilingualism and the education of bilingual population.
LÓPEZ, L.E. and W. KÜPER, 1999. ‘La educación intercultural bilingüe en América Latina: balance y perspectivas’ [Intercultural bilingual education in Latin-America: balance and perspectives. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación 20.
In spite of the absence of the word “multilingualism” in the title of this long piece of research, its main goal is to provide contextual and historical information about the multilingual situation in Latin-America. In particular, the authors state their intention of setting the bases for the establishment of educational policies in multilingual, multicultural and multiethnic contexts. They discuss the improvements achieved via the application of bilingual educational programmes, as well as the (to date) unresolved questions.
POZZI-ESCOT, I. 1998. El Multilingüismo en el Perú [Multilingualism in Peru]. Perú: CBC.
The author collects the contributions of a number of researchers. The lines of research are particularly relevant for the study of multilingualism in terms of didactically-related information, as well as information about the languages and dialects spoken in this country.
WARLETA, E. 1994. ‘Pluralidad cultural y social de Iberoamérica. El papel de la educación bilingüe intercultural’ [Cultural and social plurality in Iberoamérica. The role of bilingual intercultural education]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación 4, 2.
Warleta provides a complete view of the linguistic situation in South America. He describes the use of official and aboriginal languages in each country. He traces different linguistic families and discusses the political, social and cultural consequences of this linguistic diversity. Of particular interest for the study of multilingualism are the notions of bilingualism and educational politics. Terms such as “bilingualism”, “biculturalism”, “bilingual bicultural education” or “second language acquisition” are applied to the situation analyzed. The author points out some on-going research and the results are discussed in the light of language integration and normalization.
II. POLITICAL ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE
Linguistic Policies are another relevant area. The complicated co-existence of official and non-official languages tends to be the common ground of the works commented in the present section. The most frequent issues are the co-officiality of Spanish with other linguistic varieties, the situations of linguistic equilibrium (or lack of it), and the attempts to normalize the use of all these languages.
As stated in the previous section, a distinction is made between Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries.
Some relevant titles in Spain:
LÓPEZ, J.I. 2004. El Régimen Jurídico del Multilingüismo en Aragón [The legislation of Multilingualism in Aragón]. Aragón: Colección Aragón en el Aula.
López sets out the linguistic situation in this autonomous community in Spain. From the perspective of linguistic policy, the author describes the linguistic regulation held in the region. He also compares this situation with that of other bilingual (or multilingual) communities in this country.
MACKEY, W. 1994. ‘La ecología de las sociedades plurilingües’ [The ecology of multilingual societies] in A. Bastardas and E. Boix (eds.): ¿Un estado una lengua?: la organización política de la diversidad lingüística. Barcelona: Octaedro.
The chapter by Mackey, which focuses on the linguistic diversity and the situation of Catalan in this autonomous community, is concerned with language contact, linguistic ecology, linguistic change, and processes of linguistic normalization. Special emphasis is placed on the legislative regulation of language use in Catalonia.
MILLÁN, A. 1984. ‘La regulación constitucional del multilingüismo’ [Institutional regulation of multilingualism]. Revista Española de Derecho Constitucional 10.
This article deals with a diversity of topics concerning linguistic policies in Spain. A number of situations (in Spain and Europe) where more than one language co-exist in one and the same region are described and compared with each other. The author, who focuses in particular on the situation in Spain, highlights situations of linguistic conflict. He discusses some measures to be adopted in order to, firstly, maintain the co-officiality of the Spanish language with other languages in autonomous communities with an own language, and, secondly, to normalize the use of these languages.
VIDAL-QUADRAS, A. 1995. ‘Multilingüismo y Política: El Caso Catalán’ [Multilingualism and Politics: The Catalan Case]. Quaderns de la Fundació Concordia 4.
Vidal-Quadras presents the controversy experienced in Catalonia as a result of the difficult co-existence of the national language (Spanish) and Catalan. The relationship between language and politics is explored by means of the simultaneous discussion of two topics. Firstly, the author holds a theoretically-based discussion on the definition of language as a function of some social, national and political factors. Secondly, he describes the changes that language use in this region has undergone over the last thirty years. Both discussions come together in the concept of identity, or as the author himself suggests, “multiple identities”.
KUDRYASTEV, E. and L.D. OUEDRAOGO 2003. Aplicación del Multilingüismo en el Sistema de las Naciones Unidas [Application of Multilingualism to the System of the United Nations]. Ginebra: Dependencia común de Inspección.
The authors tackle a number of aspects related to the linguistic legislation adopted by the United Nations.
Some relevant titles in Latin-America: At this point the high degree of overlapping between the sections on education and linguistic diversity must be underlined. The works mentioned here are essentially political.
YRIGOYEN, R. 2001. Justicia y Multilingüismo. Pautas para alcanzar una justicia multilingüe en Guatemala [Justice and Multilingualism. Guides to achieve a multilingual fairness in Guatemala]. Guatemala: AID.
The work by Yrigoyen presents the sociolinguistic reality in Guatemala and discusses the different linguistic policies that have been adopted, as well as the treatment of the aboriginal languages as a result of these policies. The situation of multilingualism in this region is approached from a political perspective. Under this perspective is shaped the model of bilingualism and linguistic legislation. The author closes the articles by putting forward some suggestions for the successful institutionalization of multilingualism.
CERRON-PALOMINO, R. 1987. Multilingüismo y política idiomática en Perú [Multilingualism and linguistic policy in Perú]. Lima: IEP.
The situation of multilingualism in Peru is analyzed by Cerron-Palomino from the perspective of linguistic policy.
III. SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
The bibliography cited in this section analyzes multilingualism from the perspective of either sociolinguistics, cultural anthropology, or ethnography.
ARDENER, E. 1976. Multilingüismo y categoría social [Multilingualism and social category]. Paidos: Buenos Aires (Spanish versión by César Tomás Aira).
The author examines multilingualism from an anthropological perspective.
BUXÓ I REY, M.J. 1975. Antropología del bilingüismo, multilingüismo y variantes de un código [Anthropology, multilingualism and variants of a code]. Tesis doctoral. Barcelona.
The occurrence of bilingualism and multilingualism in the Catalan-speaking context is presented.
FERNÁNDEZ, M. 2000. ‘Cuando los hablantes se niegan a elegir: multilingüismo e identidad múltiple en la modernidad reflexiva’ [When speakers refuse to choose: multilingualism and multiple identity in modern reflexives. Estudios de Sociolingüística 1,1.
This article focuses on the concept of identity and explores the relationship between the constructs “language” and “identity”, analyzed from the point of view of social identity. The main assumption in this article is that languages result from social identity, but they are simultaneously a source of social identities.
GIMENO, F. 1981. ‘Dimensiones del multilingüismo’ [Dimensions of multilingualism]. Revista Española de Lingüística 11,2.
GIMENO, F. 1984. ‘Multilingüismo y multietnicismo’ [Multilingualism and multiethnicity] . Estudios de Lingüística, 2.
In these two articles the concept of multilingualism is approached from a sociolinguistic perspective.
IV. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY IN MULTILINGUAL CONTEXTS
One of the most defining features of multilingualism is the linguistic diversity it involves. That is why several works echo it in a direct or indirect way. The works cited in this section focus on such diversity. They describe several linguistic varieties, and refer to the use of different languages and the contexts associated to each of them. Furthermore, some works speculate on the role played by some factors believed to be key to the understanding of the present-day situation in these countries.
- Some titles in Spain:
SIGUÁN, M. 1992. España plurilingüe [Multilingual Spain]. Madrid: Alianza Universidad (701).
In this book, Siguán describes the linguistic variety in Spain in terms of the use of different languages, dialects or linguistic varieties in the different autonomous communities in the country. This description presents the uses of each language in several contexts (family, education, politics, etc.). Different cultural and social measures designed to promote the use and development of every language are discussed along with the reactions to these measures.
SOTO, BEATRIZ 2000. ‘El fenómeno de la inmigración desde una perspectiva lingüística. La población marroquí escolarizada como ejemplo’ [The phenomenon of immigration from a linguistic perspective. Moroccan population in school as an example]. Paper presented at the II Congress on Immigration in Spain, under the title España y las migraciones internacionales en el cambio de siglo, Madrid.
Soto is concerned with problems related to the acceptation and adoption of linguistic and cultural diversity in Spain, originated by the increasing influx of migrant population arrived to Spain in the last years. In particular, the author analyses the case of moroccan immigrants, focusing on the effect that the linguistic diversity and diglossia in the society of their home country exerts on the learning of Spanish.
Linguistic diversity in Spain is also discussed in these works:
VILLANUEVA, D. and F. CABO 1984. ‘Paisaje, juego y multilingüismo’ [Landscape, game and multilingualism]. Paper presented in the X Simposio de la Sociedad Española de Literatura General y comparada. Santiago de Compostela.
WEINRICH, U. 1976. ‘Unilingüismo y multilingüismo’ [Unilingualism and multilingualism] in A. Martinet (ed.) Trabajo del lenguaje 4. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Nueva Visión.
- Some titles in Latin-America:
CIFUENTES, B. 1998. Letras sobre voces: multilingüismo a través de la historia [Lyrics over voices. Multilingualism through history]. Thalplan, D.f.: CIESAS. Colección Alpes.
In this book, Cifuentes examines some of the factors that have determined the present multilingual situation in Mexico, from a cultural point of view. Among these, he stresses the importance of education and evangelization, as well as the role played by latin musicians and their lyrics.
DÍAZ-COUDER, E. 1996. Multilingüismo y Estado Nación en Méjico [Multilingualism and State-Nation in Mexico]. DiversCité Langues 1.
Díaz-Couder portrays the linguistic situation in Mexico. The author comments briefly on the history of the linguistic evolution of this country, underlining the great variety of languages and the structural differences between them. Demographical data are provided on the use of these languages and their distribution among the population. The author mentions different situations of language maintenance or dislocation and discusses some conditioning factors of their use.
More general titles describing similar situations in the above cited countries are listed next.
ESCOBAR, A. (ed.) 1972. El reto del multilingüismo en el Perú [The challenge of multilingualism in Peru]. Lima: IEP.
MUÑOZ, H. and E. LEWIN (eds.) 1996. El significado de la diversidad lingüística y cultural [The meaning of linguistic and cultural diversity]. México, D.F.: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa.
STEWART, W.A. 1962. ‘Un bosquejo de tipología lingüística para describir el multilingüismo’ [A draft on the linguistic typology to describe multilingualism]. In Garrin, P. and Y. Lastra (eds.): Antología de etno-lingüística y sociolingüística. México: UNAM.
V. MULTILINGUALISM IN NON-SPANISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES
Even though a great deal of literature on multilingualism in Spanish presents situations linked to the use of this language, it is also true that situations of multilingualism in other countries have drawn the attention of some authors. Some instances of this are found in the works discussed in this section.
BARAJANO, A.M. 1988. Plurilingüismo y política lingüística en el Israel de nuestros días [Multilingualism and linguistic politic in present-day Israel]. Madrid: Fundación Juan March.
Barajano expounds the situation of multilingualism in present-day Israel, emphasizing the weight and political decision in this situation.
JÓDAR, G. 2001. ‘El multilingüismo luxemburgués’ [Multilingualism in Luxemburg]. Educar en el 2000 8,8.
This article reports on the educational system in Luxemburg, a country where multilingualism is impelled by formal education. This model of education is based on an instrumental use of the language. The situation in this country is compared with that of other European countries, which serve the author to theorize about the improvements that might be suggested in the Spanish educational system to optimize foreign language teaching and learning.
Further references on works on European multilingualism are the following:
STIJNEN, S. 1990. Multilingüismo y educación: la situación holandesa. Lengua del alumno, lengua de la escuela [Multilingualism and education: the situation in Holland. The language of the learner, the language of the school]. Barcelona: Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias.
URIBE-VILLEGAS, O. 1972. Situaciones de multilingüismo en el mundo [Situations of multilingualism in the word]. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
ZACHARIEW, Z. 1978. Lengua materna, bilingüismo y multilingüismo a través de los programas de la UNESCO [Mother tongue, bilingualism and multilingualism through the UNESCO programmes]. Barcelona: Ediciones CEAC.
VI. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF MULTILINGUALISM
As is the case in the preceding sections, the major body of literature on multilingualism is published in English. Notwithstanding, it is in this section where the scarcity of titles in Spanish becomes more evident. The two works cited approach multilingualism from a psychoanalytical perspective.
SOUED, N. 1983. ‘El multilingüismo desde una mirada psicoanalítica’ [Multilingualism from a psychoanalitic view]. Revista de Psicoanálisis de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina 39.
This is a short article on the advantages and disadvantages entailed by the knowledge of more than one language, analyzed from a psychological point of view. Several contexts for foreign language acquisition (above all acquisition on the part of migrant population) and their immediate implications for the multilingualism of the speakers are discussed.
TESONE, J.E. 1995. ‘Multilingüismo, representación de palabra, representación de cosa y realidad psíquica’ [Multilingualism, word representation, object representation and psychic reality]. Revista de Psicoanálisis de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina 52,3.
VII. L3 ACQUISITION IN BILINGUALS. RESEARCH IN CATALONIA
Particularly relevant for the scientific study of multilingualism is the empirical research carried out by the BAF-Project (Barcelona Age Factor) on the acquisition of English as a foreign language by Spanish/Catalan bilingual learners. This group is coordinated by Dr. Carmen Muñoz and counts in the contributions of several teachers from the University of Barcelona, the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the Pompeu Fabra University. The main research line of this group is the effect of age on the formal acquisition of a foreign language on the part of primary, secondary and university students in Catalonia, who have began learning the target language (L3 English) at different ages (8, 11, 14 and after 18). Longitudinal and cross-sectional data have been collected at different stages of the acquisition process. The data have been gathered by means of the administration of a questionnaire and a battery of tests. The different tests aim at measuring different skills, whereas the questionnaire makes feasible the study of issues of great importance in Second Language Acquisition, as for instance motivation, learning strategies or attitudes towards the foreign language and the learning of this language, all of them prevalent issues in the literature on multilingualism and multilingual acquisition.
The first analyses of these data allowed the members of the BAF-Project to evaluate the efficiency of the learning process in the different groups. The relevance of these results is theoretical (in that it permits a discussion of the critical period hypothesis in the acquisition of a language) as well as applied, in that it allows an analysis of the pedagogical practices in public schools in Catalonia and the proposal of a number of measures to implement the learning and teaching of these learners.
Some of the most elucidating results of this on-going research are mentioned in the forthcoming titles, which account for the findings thrown by the qualitative analysis of the battery of tests. These results are related to the development of oral and written skills, the stages or processes of acquisition of diverse linguistic forms, and the effect of the age factor in the above-mentioned processes. They have been presented in different congresses and published in several articles or chapters.
CELAYA, M.L., PÉREZ, C. and TORRAS, M.R. 1998. ‘Matriz de criterios de medición para la determinación del perfil de competencia lingüística escrita en inglés de alumnos bilingües’ [Matrix of measuring criteria in determining the profile of griten linguistic competente in English by bilingual learners]. Paper presented in the II Encuentro Internacional de la adquisición de las lenguas del Estado. Universidad de Barcelona.
CELAYA, M.L., NAVÉS, T. and PÉREZ, C. 1997. ‘Perfil de competencia óptima en la producción escrita no-nativa en inglés’ [Profile of optimal competence in English non-native written production]. Actas del XXI Congreso de AEDEAN. Sevilla.
CELAYA, M.L. and MUÑOZ, C. 1996. ‘Definición de competencia en la adquisición del inglés como lengua extranjera’ [Definition of competente in the acquisition of English as a foreign language]. Paper presented in the XIV Congreso AESLA. Universidad Rovira i Virgili.
FULLANA, N. 1998. ‘El efecto de la edad de inicio de aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera (inglés) y cantidad de exposición a la LE en la percepción de los fonemas del inglés por hablantes de español y catalán’ [The effect of age of onset in the learning of a foreign language (English) and the amount of exposure to the TL in the perception of English phonemes by speakers of Spanish and Catalan]. Paper presented in AESLA, Universidad de Lleida.
MUÑOZ, C. 2001. ‘La sobre-explicitación de la referencia personal en las narrativas en segunda lengua’ [Over-explicitness of personal referente in narratives in a second language]. Paper presented in AESLA. León.
1998a. ‘Los efectos de la edad de los sujetos en la realización de tests en lengua extranjera’ [The effects of age in the perfomance of tests in the foreign language]. in Vázquez, I. & Guillén, I. (eds.): Los distintos dominios de la Lingüística Aplicada desde la perspectiva de la Pragmática. Zaragoza: ANUBAR Ediciones.
1998b. ‘La anáfora cero en la interlengua de los estudiantes españoles de inglés’ [The Zero-Anaphora in the interlanguage of Spanish learners of English’] in M. Pujol, L. Nussbaum and M. Llobera (eds.): Adquisición de lenguas extranjeras: perspectivas actuales en Europa. Madrid: Edelsa.
and CORTÉS, C. 1999. ‘El uso de escalas para medir las habilidades orales en inglés’ [The use of scales to measure oral skills in English]. Paper presented in the XVII Congreso of AESLA. Alcalá de Henares.
NAVÉS, T. and MUÑOZ, C. 2000. ‘Usar las lenguas extranjeras para aprender y aprender a usar las lenguas extranjeras’ [Use foreign languages to learn and learn to use foreign languages] in D. Marsh and G. Langé (eds.): Using language to learn and learning to use languages. Universidad de Jyväskylä.
TRAGANT, E. 1997. ‘La corrección de la expresión escrita: las prefencias de los estudiantes’ [Correction in written production: students’ preferences]. Didáctica (Lengua y Literatura) 8.
The results of the qualitative analysis of the questionnaires have revealed some tendencies in relation to a set of dependent variables closely linked to the learner. This analysis has further explored the relationship of the age factor with these variables. Some of these results are reported in the works cited below.
CORTÉS, C. and NAVÉS, T. 1996. ‘Diseño, pilotaje y explotación de cuestionarios sobre las variables edad, metodología y gramática’ [Design, piloting and explotation of questionnaires on age, methodology and grammar]. Actas del XIV Congreso de AESLA, Tarragona.
MUÑOZ, C. 2000. ‘La edad y otras variables individuales en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera’ [Age and other individual variables in the learning of a foreign language]. Actas del Curso de Verano de la Universidad del País Vasco: “El factor edad en la adquisición de lenguas extranjeras”. San Sebastián.
1998. La adquisición formal de la lengua inglesa por escolares de diferentes edades’ [The formal acquisition of the English language by learners of different ages]. Paper presented in the I Simposio sobre enseñanza y aprendizaje del inglés: el método comunicativo.
TORRAS, M.R. and TRAGANT, E. 1996. ‘Estudio de las creencias sobre el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera antes de los 8 años’ [Study of beliefs on the learning of a foreign language before the age of 8]. Actas del XIV Congreso de AESLA. Tarragona.
TRAGANT, E. and MUÑOZ, C. 2000. ‘La motivación y su relación con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de lengua extranjera’ [Motivation and its relationship with age in a formal context of acquisition of foreign language] in C. Muñoz (ed.) Segundas lenguas. Adquisición en el aula. Barcelona: Ariel.
VICTORI, M. 1999. ‘Las estrategias de aprendizaje en la enseñanza de lenguas’ [Learning Strategies in language teaching]. Hizpide, 44.
and TRAGANT, E. 1999. ‘La evolución de las estrategias de aprendizaje’ [The evolution of learning strategies]. Paper presented in the XVII Congreso of AESLA. Alcalá de Henares.
VIII. L3 ACQUISITION IN BILINGUALS. RESEARCH IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY
Research in the Basque Country, similar to that described in the Catalan context (Section VII) as regards scientific aims and explored areas, is coordinated by Dr. Jasone Cenoz. A great deal of research done by this group results from the comparison of diverse educational models in primary and secondary school. These models differ from each other in amount and intensity of formal instruction in all the languages, namely, the two official languages of the Basque Country (Spanish and Basque) and the third language (English). The most recurrent issues are the effects of the advancement of the age of onset in the acquisition of English as a foreign language (in relation to different linguistic skills), and the attitudes towards the learning of this language. Of particular interest are the similar findings obtained in the projects in Catalonia and the Basque Country in spite of the different linguistic typology in each context.
The main findings of this research are set out in the following works:
CENOZ, J. 2003. ‘El aprendizaje del inglés desde educación infantil: efectos cognitivos, lingüísticos y afectivos’ [The learning of English in primary school: cognitive, linguistic and affective effects]. Eduling. Revista-fòrum sobre plurilingüisme i educació 1.
2000. ‘Actitudes hacia la adquisición plurilingüe’ [Attittudes towards multilngual acquisition]. Paper presented in AESLA. Barcelona.
1994. ‘Adquisición de la tercera lengua desde preescolar: Resultados de una experiencia en el País Vasco y Cataluña’ [Acquisition of the third language in preschool: Results of a experience in the Basque Country and Catalonia]. Paper presented in AESLA. Barcelona.
1992. Enseñanza-aprendizaje del inglés como L2 o L3 [Learning-teaching of English as L2 or L3]. Tesis doctoral. Universidad del País Vasco.
DOIZ, A. y LASAGABASTER, D. 2001. ‘El efecto del factor edad en la producción escrita en inglés’ [The effect of the age factor in English written production]. In I. Cruz, C. Santamaría, C. Tejedor and C. Valero (eds.) La lingüística aplicada a finales del siglo XX. Ensayos y propuestas. Universidad de Alcalá.
LASAGABASTER, D. 2003. Actitudes lingüísticas. Actitudes hacia la lengua minoritaria, la mayoritaria y la extranjera [Linguistic attitudes: Attitudes towards the minority, the dominant and the foreign language]. Lleida: Editorial Milenio.
1998. Creatividad y conciencia metalingüística: incidencia en el aprendizaje del inglés como L3. [Creativity and metalinguistic awareness: incidence in the learning of English as L3]. Leoia. UPH /EHU.
ZAROBE, Y. 2001a. ‘El factor de la edad en la adquisición de los sujetos pronominales en inglés como tercera lengua’ [The age factor in the acquisition of pronominal subjects in English as a third language]. Paper presented in AESLA. León.
2001b. ‘Desarrollo de la competencia oral en la adquisición del inglés como tercera lengua’ [Development of oral skills in the acquisition of English as a third language]. Paper presented in the XXXI Simposio de la Sociedad Española de Lingüística. Universidad de Almería.
GARCÍA MAYO, M.P., LÁZARO IBARROLA, a. and LICERAS, J.M. 2001. ‘La forma is y los pronombres débiles como morfemas de concordancia en la interlengua inglesa de niños bilingües castellano/euskera’ [The form is and weak pronouns as concordance morphemes in the English interlanguage of Spanish/Basque bilingual children] in L. González Romero, M. Martínez Vázquez, B. Rodríguez Arrizabalaga y P. Ron Vaz (eds.): Recent Approaches to English Grammar. Huelva: Universidad de Huelva.